About the Calculator

A research tool for calculating estimated historical yield loss in corn, cotton, soybean, and wheat from diseases and invertebrate pests

The purpose this calculator is to share economically important information on estimated crop losses from diseases or invertebrate pests (insects, slugs, etc.) with those engaged in research, education, and policy formation. This online calculator can query multiple types of production and yield loss data for a variety of user-defined or predetermined factors including geographic area and timeframe. It is important to note the limitations of this tool including the fact that loss values here are expert estimates and not actual loss values. Also, not all data categories are available for all locations and all years, and categories changed slightly over the years. 

How to cite information from this resource: 

Crop Protection Network. 2024. Estimates of crop yield losses due to diseases and invertebrate pests: an online tool. Https://loss.cropprotectionnetwork.org/. Doi.org/10.31274/cpn-20191121-0

How are loss estimates determined?

The Corn Disease Working Group (CDWG), the North Central Research and Extension Activity (NCERA) 137 Soybean Disease Committee, the Southern Soybean Disease Workers, the North Central Regional Committee on Management of Small Grain Diseases (NCERA 184), the Western Wheat Workers (WERA 97), and others revise disease or invertebrate loss estimates annually. Methods for estimating losses vary by state or province and year. Estimates may be based on statewide surveys; feedback from university Extension, industry, government, and farmer representatives; and personal experiences.

Production prior to estimated disease or invertebrate pest loss is used to formulate values for each state or province:

Harvested yield or USD / ([100 - total estimated loss percent] ÷ 100)

Individual state or province yield or USD reductions for each disease or invertebrate pest is then determined:

(loss percent ÷ 100) x yield or USD prior to losses

Per acre USD loss values are derived by dividing losses in USD by the reported number of acres planted in each state or province.

Inflation has NOT been accounted for in reported USD values.

Important notes about data

Not all data categories are available for all locations and all years, and categories changed slightly over the years.

Corn Diseases:

  • Data is available from 2012 onwards.
  • Mycotoxin contamination values are not available. 
  • Corn loss data are not available for Alabama from 2012-2018, Georgia from 2012-2019, Missouri in 2013, Oklahoma from 2012-2022; South Carolina from 2012-2019, and Virginia from 2012-2016. 

Soybean Diseases: 

  • Data is currently available from 1996 onwards.
  • Because data was obtained from differing sources (extension personnel, previously published papers, and government reporting agencies) discrepancies among years and locations exist that cannot be accounted for. Thus, it is important to remember that the data presented here are estimates only. 
  • Most soybean data were back calculated from reported yield reductions to percent losses using production reports from USDA NASS and OMAFRA.
  • Soybean loss data not available for Florida in 2002 and 2003; Minnesota in 1999 and 2000; New York from 1996-2016; Ontario in 1996, 1997, 2003-2005, and 2007-2009; Pennsylvania in 2001; and Texas in 2011
  • Cercospora leaf blight and purple seed stain losses have been combined into one value. 
  • From 1996-2010, losses from root knot nematode and other nematodes (excluding soybean cyst nematode) were contained in a single category; from 2011 onward, root knot nematode data were separated from the other nematodes category; from 2014 onward, Reniform nematode data were separated from the other nematodes category.  
  • Canadian data from 1998 may be representative of all of Canada rather than just Ontario. 
  • Data from Iowa in 2005 was missing. However, since Iowa production is such a high percentage of soybeans grown in the U.S., not reporting estimated disease loss data from Iowa in 2005 would heavily skew queried results. To account for this, disease-related extension articles from 2005 and data from other sources were used to estimate percent losses for this year.
  • The estimated yield loss value for purple seed stain in New York is due to dockage from low quality seed in 2021-2022.
  • The estimated yield loss values for Diaporthe (Phomopsis) complex from New York and Ontario are due to dockage from low quality seed in 2021-2023 and 2021-2022, respectively.

Wheat Diseases:

  • Data is currently available from 2018 onwards.
  • Mycotoxin contamination values or Ergoty seed lot contamination values are not yet available. Black point and black sooty mold are not included as these diseases primarily reduce grain quality rather than quantity.
  • Disease loss data for Texas in 2018 and 2021 is not available.
  • Disease loss data for Alabama in 2023 is not available.

Soybean Invertebrates:

  • Additional data on the economic costs associated with invertebrate management, such as field scouting and insecticide application, can be found in the Midsouth Entomologist online publication.
  • These data are expert estimates only.
  • Soybean loss data is available for the following states and years:
    • 2009 and 2010: AR, MS, and TN
    • 2011 through 2016: AL, AR, LA, MS, NC, TN, and VA
    • 2017: AL, AR, DE, GA, IL, IN, LA, MI, MS, NC, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, and WI
    • 2018 and 2019: AL, AR, DE, GA, IL, KY, LA, MI, MS, NC, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, and WI
    • 2020 and 2021: AL, AR, DE, GA, IL, KY, LA, MI, MN, MS, NC, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, and WI
    • 2022: AL, AR, DE, GA, IA, IL, KY, LA, MI, MS, NC, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, and WI
  • Selecting regional or country-wide geographies will return results containing only the data from states and years that estimates are available for.
  • Because data was obtained from differing sources, discrepancies among years and locations may exist that cannot be accounted for.
  • Certain invertebrate pests injure soybean plants in multiple ways. In this loss calculator, pests were placed into the category matching their primary feeding or injury activity. For example, bean leaf beetle adults feed on foliage and fruit while larvae feed on roots; however, bean leaf beetle was placed in the “Defoliators and fruit feeders” category. Likewise, stink bugs were placed in the “Defoliators and fruit feeders” category due to injury to pods and developing seeds, even though they feed by consuming plant sap.
  • Losses caused by “Other insects” are included in the “Defoliators and fruit feeders” category.
  • Thistle caterpillar was added beginning in 2020; soybean gall midge was added beginning in 2021; trochanter mealybug was no longer collected after 2020.

Cotton Diseases:

  • Yield loss data is reported as 480 lb. bales.
  • Cotton loss data by state is available for the following states and years:
    • AL, AZ, AR, CA, GA, LA, MS, MO, NM, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX beginning 1965.
    • FL and VA beginning 1998.
    • KS beginning 2019.
    • NC data is not available for 2016.
    • AZ data is not available for 2017.
  • Cotton loss data by disease is available for the following diseases and years:
    • “Ascochyta blight,” "Bacterial blight," "Boll rots," "Fusarium wilt," "Leaf spots and others," "Root knot nematode," "Seedling disease," "Texas root rot," and "Verticillium wilt" beginning 1965.
    • “Reniform nematode” and "Other nematodes" beginning 2000.
    • “Cotton viruses” beginning 2018.
    • “Alternaria leaf spot,” “Areolate mildew,” “Cercospora leaf spot,” “Stemphylium leaf spot,” and “Target spot” were added as distinct disease categories after 2021. From 2022 onwards, the “Leaf spots and others” disease category no longer includes the aforementioned diseases.
  • Boll rots in 2022 in South Carolina includes hardlock on bottom bolls from multiple causes.
  • Loss estimate data obtained from compilers/contributors and/or the National Cotton Council of America at www.cotton.org
  • USD production values for each state were determined by dividing the total U.S. cotton USD production value for a particular year by the number of 480 lb. bales produced in the U.S. that same year to obtain a per bale USD. The result was multiplied by the number of bales produced in each state for a final USD production for each state and year.
  • Total cotton production in 480 lb. bales and acres planted was not available for California, New Mexico, and Texas from 1964 through 1973. Thus, values were determined by adding Pima and upland cotton values to arrive at an a total for each state and year of missing data.

Corn Invertebrates:

  • Corn invertebrate loss data is available for the following states/provinces and years:
    • 2021: AL, AR, CO, DE, GA, IA, IL, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MS, NC, ND, NE, NY, OH, SC, SD, TX, TN, VA, WI, and Ontario, Canada
    • 2022: AL, AR, CO, DE, GA, IA, IL, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NY, OH, SC, SD, TX, TN, WI, and Ontario, Canada
    • 2023: AL, AR, CO, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NY, OH, SC, SD, TX, TN, VA, WI, and Ontario, Canada
    • Note: data is not available for MO in 2021 and VA in 2022.
  • Selecting regional or country-wide geographies will return results containing only the data from states and years that estimates are available for.
  • Certain invertebrate pests injure corn in multiple ways. In this loss calculator, pests were placed into the category matching their primary feeding or injury activity. For example, corn rootworm adults feed on foliage and silk while larvae feed on roots; however, corn rootworm was placed in the “Root and belowground feeders” category because it causes injury primarily to corn roots.

Disclaimer

This information is only a guide. The values in this resoure are not intended to be exact values of yield losses due to diseases or invertebrate pests, and some data are missing for certain years and locations. Contributors and data managers assume no liability resulting from the use of these estimates. 

References to products in this resource are not intended to be an endorsement to the exclusion of others that may be similar. Individuals using such products assume responsibility for their use in accordance with current directions of the manufacturer. 

Find out More 

The Crop Protection Network (CPN) is a multi-state and international collaboration of university and provincial extension specialists, and public and private professionals who provide unbiased, research-based information to farmers and agricultural personnel. Our goal is to communicate relevant information that will help professionals identify and manage field crop diseases.

Annual disease loss summaries for selected years can be found here

Additional data on the economic costs associated with invertebrate management, such as field scouting and insecticide application, can be found in the Midsouth Entomologist online publication.

Find more crop protection resources at the Crop Protection Network

Acknowledgments

Text and images:

Daren Mueller and Adam Sisson 

Data compilation:

Tom Allen, Carl Bradley, Daren Mueller, Andrew Friskop, Adam Sisson, Fred Musser, Kathy Lawrence, Travis Faske, Dominic Reisig, Steve Koenning, and Allen Wrather 

Contributors: 

Daisy Ahumada, Tom Allen, Nolan Anderson, Kelsey Andersen-Onofre, Meriem Aoun, Nick Bateman, Tracey Baute, Patrick Beauzay, Gary Bergstrom, Emily Bick, Mandy Bish, Kaitlyn Bissonnette, Jason Bond, Kira Bowen, Bruce Bosley, Carl Bradley, Jeff Bradshaw, Kyle Broderick, Kirk Broders, Sebe Brown, G. David Buntin, Mary Burrows, Emmanuel Byamukama, Seth Byrd, Boris Camiletti, Angus Catchot, Jr., Martin Chilvers, Cliff Coker, Alyssa Collins, Guy Collins, Shawn Conley, Don Cook, Christina Cowger, Maria Cramer, Whitney Crow, John Damicone, Jeff Davis, Erick DeWolf, Chris DiFonzo, Ruth Dill-Macky, Anne Dorrance, Nicholas Dufault, Maira Duffeck, Keith Edmisten, Paul Esker, Travis Faske, Nicole Fiorellino, Chase Floyd, Andrew Friskop, Loren Giesler, Adrienne Gorny, Zane Grabau, Scott Graham, Jeremy Greene, Arvydas Grybauskas, Austin Hagan, Kelly Hamby, Chelsea Harbach, Glen Hartman, Ron Heiniger, Ames Herbert, Donald Hershman, Doug Higgins, Clayton Hollier, David Hooker, Jiahuai Hu, Bob Hunger, Bill Hutchison, Robert Hutmacher, Tom Isakeit, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Douglas Jardine, Bryan Jensen, Heather Kelly, Robert Kemerait, David Kerns, Katelyn Kesheimer, Kasia Kinzer, Nathan Kleczewski, Andrew Kness, Janet Knodel, Robert Koch, Alyssa Koehler, Steve Koenning, Robert Kratochvil, James Kurle, David Langston, Kathy Lawrence, Josh Lofton, Gus Lorenz, Dalton C. Ludwick, LeAnn Lux, Sean Malone, Dean Malvick, Dylan Mangel, Sam Markell, James Marois, Juliet Marshall, Alfredo Martinez, Febina Mathew, Uta McKelvey, Marcia McMullen, Hillary Mehl, Kelsey Mehl, Ron Meyer, Santiago Mideros, Michelle Mostrom, Daren Mueller, John Mueller, Robert Mulrooney, Fred Musser, Berlin Nelson, Melvin Newman, Ken Obasa, John Omololu, Rodrigo Onofre, Larry Osborne, Charles Overstreet, David Owens, Guy Padgett, Pierce Paul, Angie Peltier, Julie Peterson, Patrick Phipps, Michael Plumblee, Pat Porter, Bruce Potter, Paul Price, Francis Reay-Jones, Tim Reed, Dominic Reisig, Phillip Roberts, Alison Robertson, Gregory Roth, Tom Royer, Nicholas Seiter, Elson Shields, Madalyn Shires, Edward Sikora, Adam Sisson, Ian Small, Damon Smith, Jocelyn Smith, Maxwell Smith, Terry Spurlock, Scott Stewart, Amanda Strayer-Sherer, Glenn Studebaker, Connie Tande, Sally Taylor, Darcy Telenko, Albert Tenuta, Lindsey Thiessen, Benjamin Thrash, Kelly Tilmon, Tyler Towles, Rachel Vann, Adam Varenhorst, Raul Villanueva, Paul Vincelli, Fred Warner, Tristan Watson, M. O. Way, Wade Webster, Stephen Wegulo, Terry Wheeler, Bill Wiebold, Jochum Wiersma, Bradley Wilson, Ken Wise, Kiersten Wise, Allen Wrather, Fei Yang, Yuan Zeng, and Anthony Zukoff.

Contributors to this publication include members of the Corn Disease Working Group, North Central Research and Extension Activity 137 Soybean Disease Committee, the Southern Soybean Disease Workers, the North Central Regional Committee on Management of Small Grain Diseases (NCERA 184), and others from land grant universities. These university and extension scientists represent many institutions, including: University of Arkansas, Auburn University, University of California, Clemson University, Colorado State University, Cornell University, University of Delaware, University of Florida, University of Georgia, University of Guelph, University of Idaho, University of Illinois, Southern Illinois University; Iowa State University, Kansas State University, University of Kentucky, Louisiana State University, University of Maryland, Michigan State University, University of Minnesota, Mississippi State University, University of Missouri, Montana State University, University of Nebraska, New Mexico State University, North Carolina State University, North Dakota State University, The Ohio State University, Oklahoma State University, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Pennsylvania State University, Purdue University, South Dakota State University, University of Tennessee, Texas A&M University, Virginia Tech, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and University of Wyoming.

References

Yield and USD production values obtained from: 

United States Department of Agriculture - National Agriculture Statistics Service (USDA-NASS). Quick Stats 2.0. Https://www.nass.usda.gov/Quick_Stats/index.php.

Statistics Canada: Field Crop Reporting Series. Ontario Ministry of Agric., Food, and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), Guelph. Https://www.ontario.ca/page/field-crops-statistics. Ontario data either from, or assummed to be from, Statistics Canada, and is now contained in Table 32-10-0359-01 Estimated areas, yield, production, average farm price and total farm value of principal field crops, in metric and imperial units. Https://doi.org/10.25318/3210035901-eng.

Personal inquiries with crop specialists when data was unavailable via USDA-NASS

Farm Service Agengy. Crop Acreage Data. Https://www.fsa.usda.gov/news-room/efoia/electronic-reading-room/frequently-requested-information/crop-acreage-data/index.

Additional Canadian data from: 

Wrather, J. A., Anderson, T. R., Arsyad, D. M., Tan, Y., Ploper, L. D., Porta-Puglia, A., Ram, H. H., and Yorinori, J. T. 2001. Soybean disease loss estimates for the top ten soybean-producing countries in 1998. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 23: 115-121. 

Wrather, J. A., Koenning, S. R., and Anderson, T. R. 2003. Effect of diseases on soybean yields in the United States and Ontario (1999-2002). Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2003-0325-01-RV.

 

In addition to support from USDA-NIFA, this project was funded in part through Growing Forward 2 (GF2), a federal-provincial territorial initiative. The Agricultural Adaptation Council assists in the delivery of GF2 in Ontario. 

In accordance with Federal civil rights law and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) civil rights regulations and policies, the USDA, its Agencies, offices, and employees, and institutions participating in or administering USDA programs are prohibited from discriminating based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, gender identity (including gender expression), sexual orientation, disability, age, marital status, family/parental status, income derived from a public assistance program, political beliefs, or reprisal or retaliation for prior civil rights activity, in any program or activity conducted or funded by USDA (not all bases apply to all programs). Remedies and complaint filing deadlines vary by program or incident. Persons with disabilities who require alternative means of communication for program information (e.g., Braille, large print, audiotape, American Sign Language, etc.) should contact the responsible Agency or USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TTY) or contact USDA through the Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. Additionally, program information may be made available in languages other than English. To file a program discrimination complaint, complete the USDA Program Discrimination Complaint Form, AD-3027, found online at How to File a Program Discrimination Complaint and at any USDA office or write a letter addressed to USDA and provide in the letter all of the information requested in the form. To request a copy of the complaint form, call (866) 632-9992. Submit your completed form or letter to USDA by: (1) mail: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20250-9410; (2) fax: (202) 690-7442; or (3) email: program.intake@usda.gov. USDA is an equal opportunity provider, employer, and lender.

©2024 by the Crop Protection Network. All rights reserved.